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端午佳節話香包

作者:不詳來源:網絡2019-05-28 14:27:45
端午佳節話香包

香包古已有之。據考證,我國戰國時期就已經有佩帶香包的習俗。例如,長沙馬王堆中出土的四件香囊中,就有茅香的根莖、花椒、辛夷等香料。這些香料經過專家調制之后,放入香包中,功效就有如現在的香水、精油,可以清心醒腦。而如果置入藥材,則可憑借其藥力,防止細菌或有害昆蟲的入侵。當時,香包被稱為香囊、佩幃、容臭、香袋等,其造型多樣,有桃形、石榴形、雞心形、腰子形、小老虎形等,雖然形制各別,佩掛方式及內填香料不同,但意義不外乎祛惡氣、避邪穢。

明朝時,端陽節佩帶香囊之風始盛,后來香包也就像是個吉祥物一樣,一代接著一代流傳下來。小孩子掛的香包,內裝雄黃、熏草、艾葉等物,用以祛邪強身。香包在民間廣為流傳已有幾千年,《封神榜》小哪吒的紅兜肚,有斗邪必勝的效果;《白蛇傳》的老和尚用雄黃酒逼白蛇現原形等。由此可見,這些神化了的香包已深入中華民族的文化之中。

香包在古代的名稱有哪些

香包,起源于什么時代已不可考,最早的敘述出現在《詩經》的一些篇章,說明早在3000多年前已有香包。而每個時代、每個地域對于香包的稱呼都不相同,所以關于香包的別名,只能從大量史料里搜尋一丁點兒的信息。

香纓

先秦時代,女子用五彩線制成的首飾物戴在頭上,標志著已是結婚的婦女,那時稱“香纓”。

前蜀馮鑒《續事始·拜帛》:“婦見后故要參舅姑,即令人持香纓諮白,許見則出,不許即收之……隋大業五年,宰相牛弘建議,古禮婦執香纓以為請訊,未為允當,自今后請以素絹八尺中擗,名曰‘拜帛’,以代香纓。詔從之。”

從上面的記載可以看出,隋朝時期也以香纓稱之。大概可以考證為先秦至隋朝時期稱之為“香纓”。

香囊

香囊其實是由荷包、香袋演化而來,古人隨身攜帶用來裝小玩意的佩戴品叫荷包;填裝香料并掛在屋內驅蚊蟲、熏衣服的叫香袋。由于荷包、香袋和香包的制作方法和作用、大小有異曲同工之處,因此逐漸混淆,至今如是。

香囊的稱呼,出現于唐詩的頻率較高,如:呂溫《上官昭容書樓歌》:“香囊盛煙繡結絡,翠羽拂案青琉璃。”胡杲《七老會詩》:“鑿落滿斟判酩酊,香囊高掛任氤氳。”可知唐代稱呼香囊的居多。

佩幃

佩幃的最早記載于《楚辭·離騷》:“椒專佞以慢慆兮,榝又欲充夫佩幃。”王逸注:“幃,盛香之囊,比喻親近。”

從此段話可以看出,屈原所在時代已有香包,并有“佩幃”之稱。

容臭(xiù)

漢代《禮記》有云:“男女未冠笄者……衿纓皆陪容臭。”

容臭即香袋,說明漢代未成年的男女都是佩戴香袋的。這與各地鄉俗相符,小孩子體質較差而且抵抗力低,在醫學不發達的古代,多佩戴香包預防疾病。

香包的發展史

香包是用彩色絲線在彩綢上繡制出各種內涵古老神奇、博大精深的圖案紋飾,縫制成形狀各異、大小不等的小繡囊,內裝用多種濃烈芳香氣味的中草藥研制的細末,以作節令志慶、生活實用和觀賞品玩用。

客觀來說,最早時期的香包其實很簡陋。就是一個布袋,里面裝著香料、草藥,這個階段大概可劃分在戰國時期以前以及后來較為窮苦的邊塞地區。

《禮記》云:“五采謂之繡。”《離騷》:“扈江籬與辟芷兮,紉秋蘭以為佩。”《禮記·類則》載,未成年男女,晨昏叩拜父母,必須佩戴香包,說明香包還有禮儀作用。戰國時期以至秦、漢、晉,大男人堂而皇之佩戴香包,晉以后漸為女人、兒童的專用品。宋時,官史朝服上開始佩戴香包,禮儀作用愈加凸顯。清代,香包成為饋贈佳品,特別是相戀男女以此作為饋贈的信物。

從這些模糊不全的記載中,大概可以了解香包發展的一個雛形。不管什么時候,人都是愛美的,作為一種佩戴品,人們當然會在有限的條件下追求它的精美度、觀賞性。因此在香包佩戴逐漸流行起來的同時,一些條件優越的人就追求香包的美觀,所以在香包制作的時候,選材有所改變,不再是粗布麻繩,而是更為精細的布料、絲織品等,而面料的上面也會相應的繡上一些圖案。

再到后來,香包的佩戴流入上層社會,一些達官顯貴甚至帝王將相,也把佩戴香包作為一種時尚或者身份的象征。這種情況下,香包的制作工藝和選材要求就更加精細,這也促進了香包的飛速發展和流行。

隨著時代的進步和朝代更替中文化的差異,香包的用途也更加多向。從最初的防蟲防病,到熏香衣服、房屋,再到更深層次的禮儀、身份象征,以及各地風俗不同情況下香包被用來避邪、祈福,當然這么精美的物品更是排除不了與愛情的相關性,香包在某些時候也被用來互送,以表達愛慕之情。

翻開這一層層厚重的文化積淀,面對這一幅幅多彩的生活畫卷,展示在我們面前的盡都是古樸而又拙巧、原始而又鮮活的藝術瑰寶。其實,這才是揭示人性欲望的藝術,表達思想信仰的藝術,展示生命活力的藝術。可以說是真正的民族文化、民俗文化、大眾文化、人性文化。

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