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當前位置:首頁 > 節日民俗 > 傳統節日 > 端午節傳承一種習俗和文化

端午節傳承一種習俗和文化

作者:不詳來源:網絡2019-05-30 09:40:29
端午節傳承一種習俗和文化

端午節,為每年農歷五月初五,又稱端陽節、午日節、五月節、龍舟節、浴蘭節等。是流行于中國以及漢字文化圈里的傳統文化節日。

端午也稱端五,端陽。關于端午節的由來,說法甚多,諸如:紀念屈原說;紀念伍子胥說 ;紀念曹娥說。但千百年來,屈原的愛國精神和感人詩辭,已廣泛深入人心,故人們“惜而哀之,世論其辭,以相傳焉”,因此,紀念屈原之說,影響最廣最深,占據主流地位。

在民俗文化領域,中國民眾把端午節的龍舟競渡和吃粽子等,都與紀念屈原聯系在一起。

2008年,國家對法定節假日做出調整,將端午節、清明節、中秋節三大傳統節日增定為具有三天假期的小長假日。這不得不說是一種巨大的進步,當然是一件好事。我國是一個有著悠久歷史文化的泱泱大國,上下五千年,不知孕育了多少優秀的傳統文化。文物古跡,記錄著過去曾有過的滄桑,而類似端午節這樣的精神人文的非物質文化,同樣也顯示了中華民族的繁衍和發展,它們也應該得到我們每一個中華民族去保護,去傳承。

端午節不僅有著明確的節日主體,更有著一套完整的風俗體系。端午節食俗中除了全國各地共享的粽子之外,南方大部分地區喝雄黃酒,湖南常德、張家界等地還吃糍粑,江漢平原一帶吃黃鱔,山東、江西等地吃茶葉蛋……

恰是鑒于這種文化的多元性與歷史底蘊,2009年9月30日,“中國端午節”入選《世界人類非物質文化遺產代表作名錄》,這是中國傳統節日中第一個入選項目。

端午節一直是我國的傳統節日,但記得被韓國成功申請了他們國的文化后,更多的中國民眾是憤怒,是無奈,是一種痛心,也許,我們每個人都該好好想想,光是對文化的淺略了解真的就是保護文化了嗎?在我們痛斥高麗民族的無恥行為的時候,我們是否也應該思考一下我們對民族文化的保護到底做了什么?

中華民族的文化不僅僅是歷史的象征,更是整個民族智慧的精髓所在,了解固然重要,但拿出行動,來保護和傳承根更不失為一種行之有效的措施。保護我們的文化吧,不要當有一天周圍已經變成了文化的沙漠時候才來后悔,因為,這是我們每個人的責任。

端午節的八種文化傳統

端午節至今已有2000多年的歷史。對中華民族來說,端午節是一筆豐厚的文化遺產。近年來,保護和傳承包括端午節在內的傳統節日文化再次成為公眾關注的焦點。保護端午節對于中國這樣一個迅速崛起的東方大國來說究竟具有怎樣的價值?為什么我們一定要舉全國之力來保護端午節呢?

包粽子—飲食文化

端午是傳承中國南方優秀飲食文化的重要載體。端午節起源于南方,其食俗以粽子為代表,這一點與以傳承北方食俗為主要內容的立春、中秋、除夕等傳統節日有著本質的區別。而各地根據自己特產與習俗的不同,生產出的形形色色的粽子——桂圓粽、肉粽、水晶粽、蓮蓉粽、蜜餞粽、板栗粽、辣粽、酸菜粽、火腿粽、咸蛋粽,以及按慣例在端午期間飲用的具有殺菌驅蟲解五毒功效的雄黃酒,具有避邪禳毒、祛病強身功能的菖蒲酒,都極大地豐富了中華飲食文化的譜系,在保護中國飲食文化的獨特性,進而保護人類飲食文化的多樣性方面,作出了重要貢獻。

避邪衣—服飾文化

端午是傳承中華服飾文化的重要載體。因為端午是“惡日”,這就產生了為躲避這個“惡日”而特別制作出來的節日服裝服飾。這其中,最典型的莫過于繡有蝎子、蛇、蜈蚣、蜘蛛、蟾蜍這五種毒蟲的形形色色的五毒衣。在飾物方面,婦女發髻上佩戴的金銀絲做成的健人,系在臂膀、掛于項頸、飾于胸前的長命縷,系在腰間的香囊等,都具有很重要的審美價值。

“躲端五”—溝通人際

端午節是溝通人際關系的重要橋梁。因端午性“惡”,歷史上,這天也是接新嫁或已嫁之女回娘家“躲端五”的日子。這些民俗在歧視出嫁女子的封建宗法制社會中,對于重構出嫁女子與娘家關系方面,顯然發揮了重要作用。其實,端午所重構的遠遠不止是這一種關系,盛大的劃龍舟儀式在構建村落地緣關系、鄰里關系等方面,也發揮著重要作用。這對于以構建和諧社會的今天來說,不能不說也是一種啟迪。

雕龍鳳—手工技藝

端午是傳承傳統手工技藝的重要載體。每當端午到來之時,人們都會請上各業匠師,雕龍刻鳳,描金涂銀,為自己的龍舟打扮一番。可以說,龍舟是民間體育活動中造型最為復雜、用色最為豐富的道具之一,它不但具有很高的美學價值,同時也為我們保留下了許多神秘的驅邪避瘟符號,對我們解讀中國遠古文化具有重要幫助。而這些古老技藝的傳承,也為中國民間社會彩扎業、搭棚業、木雕業、描金業、印染業的發展提供了用武之地。

救詩人—中華道德

端午同時也是傳承中華傳統道德、傳統倫理的重要載體。端午雖脫胎于儀式,但在后來漫長的發展過程中,也附會上了許多時代精神。這些時代精神通過傳說故事傳承,并最終轉化為整個民族或是整個地域的集體意識。如東漢時流傳的曹娥救父傳說,南朝時流傳的劃龍舟救屈原傳說,吳越時期流傳的劃龍舟營救伍子胥傳說等等,顯然都與歷代統治者試圖通過某種民俗活動來推行傳統教化政治意圖有關。在從傳統社會向現代社會轉型的今天,通過傳統節日來弘揚傳統道德,張揚民族正氣,顯然有它的現實意義。

賽龍舟—體育文化

端午是傳承中華體育文化的重要載體。賽龍舟原本只是一個典型的宗教儀式活動,但到后來,人們又不斷地賦予了它以更多新的功能,體育競技成分不斷攀升,并最終成為中國民間社會一年一度的傳統體育慶典。除劃龍舟外,射箭、打馬球、打石仗、搶鴨子等民俗賽事活動,也為端午節的競技性增添了幾筆亮色。

賽歌場—表演藝術

端午是傳承中華傳統表演藝術的重要載體。在我國南方,劃龍舟同時還是一個全民賽歌的重要舞臺。歷史上,無論是湖北秭歸,還是廣東南雄,賽場即歌場,民間所傳《龍舟歌》正是在這樣一種大的文化背景下產生并發展起來的。除此之外,為驅邪禳災,一些地方在這一天還要舉行跳鐘馗、鬧鐘馗等迎神賽會,傳統舞蹈藝術在這不經意間,也獲得了有效傳承。

驅瘟疫—中華醫藥

端午還是傳承中華醫藥學知識的重要載體。為驅瘟避疫,端午還為我們保留下了許多諸如通過蘭湯沐浴(特指菊科中的佩蘭,此外還有用蒲、艾、柏等香料)以治病驅瘟的知識,保留下了通過飲用、涂抹菖蒲酒、雄黃酒或是朱砂酒以驅毒蟲的知識等等。這些千百年來傳承并積淀下來的醫學知識,即使在今天也仍具有重要的參考價值。歷史上民間還有“此日蓄藥,以蠲除毒氣”的說法。據說,這天采來的中草藥既可燃煙灸病,也可懸戶禳毒;既可香湯沐浴,也可釀酒小酌;既可內服,也可外用。由于中國人深信端午藥的靈驗,所以,一些國內大型中草藥市場還常常以此為賣點,在端午這天舉辦大型藥市活動。

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