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當前位置:首頁 > 節日民俗 > 傳統節日 > 湖南桂陽民俗:中秋金瓜龍節

湖南桂陽民俗:中秋金瓜龍節

作者:彭海湘來源:網絡2018-12-26 09:50:18
湖南桂陽民俗:中秋金瓜龍節

農歷八月十五不僅是桂陽人民合家團圓的日子,同時也是桂陽人民緬懷先祖盡情狂歡的金瓜龍節。

桂陽縣地處湖南省郴州市西南面,是一個有著悠久歷史的千年古郡,文化名縣。自古以來桂陽人民在長期的生活實踐中,創造了大量珍貴的文化資源。

桂陽縣浩塘鄉菖蒲村民間民俗文化活動金瓜龍(本地人稱南瓜為金瓜),起源于南宋寶祐年間(公元1253年)至今已有755年的歷史。據周氏宗譜載,先祖高伯公自江西鵝徑丘遷入楚南桂陽郡后,在離浩塘鄉古墟場約公里一處風景秀麗,地勢平坦,依山傍水的風水寶地開基立宅,世世代代在此繁衍生息,過著農耕細作,安逸自由的平民生活。由于此處是山野荒地,野獸出沒無常,所種莊稼屢遭破壞,村民連年顆粒無收,苦不堪言。為了防止野獸對莊稼的破壞和村民人身安全的威脅,初時,高伯公組織村民舉著火把到田間,地頭,村頭,村尾各處游走,一邊吆喝,一邊舞動著火把,意欲驅趕野獸。此法沿用了數年,但效果不甚理想,雖然村民和農作物得到了暫時的保護,但村民經受不了長年熬夜的折磨,高柏公從平素的生活中通過細心的觀察,發現了金瓜藤的生長特性。于是組織村民在所有莊稼地及村莊周邊全部插上了金瓜秧,莊稼成熟時,金瓜藤蔓也將成熟的莊稼和整個村莊嚴實的包圍起來,并結有密密麻麻大小不等的仔金瓜。村民每晚只需將點燃的香插在金瓜上,無需舉火吶喊,各處游走了。插滿香的仔金瓜,在成熟莊稼的周圍,形成了一道延綿數十里的香火墻,有效的保護了村民的農耕果實和村民的人身安全。從此,這種方法沿用了數百年。

浩塘鄉菖蒲村民間民俗文化金瓜龍,起初純屬一種自我保護的活動。其形成內容非常古樸,又與民眾生活緊密相連。它來源于純樸的民間生活,是典型的平民原始型民間文化,隨著藤蔓保護豐收的延續和時間的推移,人們從插滿香火的仔金瓜中得到一種啟迪,進而慢慢變成一種民間民俗文化——金瓜龍舞,成為浩塘周氏族門紀念性活動。

湖南桂陽民俗:中秋金瓜龍節

為了緬懷先祖的功績,每年農歷八月十五這天,菖蒲村民將其定為紀念先祖除魔降妖,保民護豐,舞動金瓜龍的日子。白天各家各戶到自家的地里摘來碗口大小的嫩金瓜,為晚上紀念活動的開始做著各項準備。戌時(晚7-9)村民自發地在村口的大坪上點燃篝火,隨著一聲長鳴的牛角號聲紀念活動開始。人們身著彩服,臉抹鍋底灰,手拉著手一圈又一圈地圍著篝火跳著原始的驅魔舞,伴隨著一聲聲短促而鏗鏘有力的豪吼,又一次地拉開了沿襲了數百年紀念先祖偉績的帷幕。隨著牛角號的再次吹響,人們有序的圍火占香,將點燃的香插在自帶的金瓜上。村民手舉著金瓜,一個接著一個,保持著一定的間距,人數不限,男女勿論,老少皆可,跟著龍頭,聽著指揮,大家一起有序地舞動,游走于田間、地頭及村莊四周。鑼鼓喧天,鞭炮齊鳴,古式硝銃不時發出震耳的轟響,一時間古老的山村呈現出一派熱鬧非凡的景象。千人長龍,隨著人們有序的舞動,如同蛟龍翻滾,火龍騰躍,其型栩栩如生,令觀者驚奇不已贊不絕口。尤其是夜間遠處眺望,宛如一條香火巨龍橫臥田間,甚是壯觀。

整個活動時間以一炷香為限,待香火燃盡,人們手舉金瓜龍,跪地仰天,齊聲吶喊,預告上天,數百年來子民勿忘緬懷先祖之偉績。活動結束后,人們隨著長龍回到篝火旁,仰天膜拜,這便意味著一年一度的金瓜龍節圓滿結束。

此項活動數百年來從未中斷,就連“十年浩劫”也未能動搖村民對這一古樸民間民俗文化的活動熱情。

從一個看似簡單的農耕事例,進而演變成大規模的民俗文化活動,經歷了一個漫長歷史演變過程,是菖蒲村民在長期的生活實踐中,經歷了一代又一代人的傳承和創造而形成的。數百年來人們通過提煉、加工將其升華為一種民間文化藝術,成為世上龍身最長,舞龍人數最多,表現形式最奇特的一條香火巨龍,這是傳統文化與現實文化絕妙結合的佳作,是人們數百年來智慧的結晶,其深厚的傳統文化底蘊和現實的藝術魅力,造就了“金瓜香火巨龍”的獨特性。

菖蒲村民間文化金瓜龍,作為一種獨特的民間民俗文化活動,有著其獨特的文化內涵、藝術魅力以及社會價值。可這樣一種獨具魅力的民間文化在傳承過程中,同樣要遭遇歷史與現實的雙重考驗。

由于社會的進步和時代的變遷,菖蒲村民的生活發生了極大的變化,許多青壯年人走出了家門,加入到了現代經濟建設的行列,加之受外來文化的沖擊,年輕一代對這一古老習俗失去了興趣,更多地迷戀的是現代文化的娛樂方式。2007年桂陽縣人民政府成立了桂陽縣非物質文化遺產保護中心,對我縣千百年來形成的民間文化給予了有計劃,有步驟的保護。香火龍也因此發揚光大,走出家門,走向更廣闊的舞臺,成為世人矚目的寶貴民間文化遺產。

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