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當前位置:首頁 > 節日民俗 > 傳統節日 > 苗族端午節習俗

苗族端午節習俗

作者:不詳來源:網絡2019-05-31 10:26:45
苗族端午節習俗

端午節是各民族群眾的共同節日,約始于春秋戰國之際。由于各民族生活習俗不同,苗族民間過端午節時保留有許多獨特之風格。

苗族民間過端午節無統一的日期。楊姓苗族大多數在五月初四日過節。巖寨楊姓卻在初二日過節,其他苗族家庭一般過兩個端午節:五月初五稱“小端午”,十五稱“大端午”,過大端午的節日氣氛比小端午要相對濃郁。

這天,苗族民間將已出嫁的女兒及女婿都接回娘家過節,故又稱“女兒節”。過節這天,家庭主婦在大門兩邊掛菖蒲、艾葉。她們邊掛邊念道:“五月五日午,天師騎艾虎;手持菖蒲劍,蛇蟲歸地府。”據老苗醫介紹,菖蒲具有提神能竅、殺菌等功效;艾葉是一種芳香化濁藥物,可除室內毒氣。

過節時,各戶都殺雞鴨、蒸米粉肉、飲雄黃酒,并將雄黃酒灑于住房四周,然后將雄黃酒搽于小子額、耳、手、腳上,據說可祛病、防百蟲。有些農戶用大蒜球穿一小塊肥肉掛于門角處,據說可防蚊蠅入室。待肥肉沾滿蒜汁后,可用于治療瘡、無名腫毒。苗民家包的粽子形狀五花八門,有秤砣粽,尖角粽、羊角粽、枕頭粽等。粽子內的心多為蜜、花生仁、紅豆、綠豆等佐料,口感極好。有些訂婚不久的青年男子在端午節前一天必須向岳父家送些過節用的禮品,俗稱“送節”。

“送節”的禮品一般不少于精加工的大個粽子80個、豬肉8、糖8包、雞各1只,米酒8,并與岳父家人共同過節。

端午節這天,苗民家庭都將室外打掃干凈,然后上山采集菖蒲、艾葉、金銀花藤葉、九里光、蛇不過等十余種草藥煎成藥水、全家人用藥水洗臉、洗澡、據說洗了藥水澡后,可驅五毒(蝎子、蜈蚣、蛇蟲、蜂、蟻),又可避邪氣侵體。有些草藥郎中趁機采集大量的草藥運到市場上出售,每把草藥8至10元,人們爭相搶購。

搶鴨子比賽

搶鴨子比賽也是苗家村寨端午節必不可少的節目。它源于紀念古代苗族英雄殺死惡龍為民除害的傳說,沿襲至今,并以鴨為吉祥物,在龍舟賽上將一大群活鴨子同時放人賽龍舟的水面上,任由人們去搶捉,誰逮著歸誰,搶到鴨子視為大吉。

比賽規則是,先把鴨子放入河中,比賽口令一發出,等在河邊的男女便開始搶抓鴨子。鴨子被人趕著在河里亂竄,搶鴨人沿著河邊追趕,誰搶抓到,鴨子便歸誰。

雙人咬粽子

苗家的粽文化很豐富,端午節前后還要圍繞粽子開展系列活動,其中最有趣味的是“雙人咬粽子”。

在歡快的木鼓聲中,姑娘小伙兩人一組,比賽分為綁腿走路、包粽子、雙人板鞋競走、咬粽子、一人離地返回等步驟,最先返回出發點的一組為勝。

走寨串門

每年苗族端午節,其他村寨的親朋好友都要到先過端午節的苗族村寨走寨串門吃粽粑、喝米酒,共同祭祀屈原。不論來多少客人,主人家都會陪坐到天亮。

第二天客人要回家時,主人家還要給每個客人送上一掛粽粑并親自送出寨門口。此習俗一直沿襲至今。

吃“五黃”

苗家過端午節要吃端午飯。端午飯要吃“五黃”:黃鱔、黃瓜、黃魚、黃泥蛋和雄黃酒。因此,端午飯必備的主菜有:一大盆黃鱔湯,一碗咸鴨蛋,一碗紅燒黃魚,一碗苗家腌黃瓜,一碗雄黃酒。當然,粽子是餐桌上的必備品。

開席前,長輩先從酒碗里倒雄黃酒出來,然后挨著給每個小孩的臉上、額上、脖子涂抹。開席時,由最年長者端起雄黃酒喝第一口,然后再往下傳,餐桌上的男女老少都必須喝上一口。

龍舟節

每年端午節起至農歷五月尾是貴州苗族龍舟節。云貴一帶,在氣候上雨旱季十分分明,在旱季里,雨水尤為珍貴。因此,苗人劃龍舟多與天氣和農事活動密切相關,祈福和慶祝性質較強,龍舟比賽通常都會有驅旱求雨、慶祝插秧成功、預祝五谷豐登等實際意義。

貴州苗族所劃的龍舟形狀也江浙大異其趣,其中最著名的就是“母子船”,每艘龍舟以一條完整杉木或大梧桐挖空成槽形,一大二小的龍舟并排成一組,大者為母船,小者為子船,三舟競技,很是有趣。

粽粑節

苗族稱端午節為粽粑節。苗家的粽子很有特色,餡也很豐富,豆沙粽、鮮肉粽、臘肉粽、綠豆粽、赤豆粽等等。最令人稱道的是苗家“五色粽”,他們用五種植物的葉液將粽餡染成紅、黃、藍、黑、白五種顏色,然后用芭蕉葉包裹成圓柱形煮熟。

一般都是在端午節前5-10天就把粽子裹好了、煮熟了。以前苗家還要把煮好的粽子掛在堂屋里,一是敬祖先,二是表示生活美滿。

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