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陜北冬至節熬冬習俗

作者:不詳來源:網絡2019-07-01 10:35:15
陜北冬至節熬冬習俗

陜北地域遼闊,各地過冬至不盡一致,但隆重對待之則相同;自冬至始的"數九"及《九九歌》,與全國各地不盡一致,但更體現了當地的物候特點。清道光刻本《榆林府志》載:“十一月,長至日,祀祖、交賀如元旦。”由此可知,“冬至大似年”,陜北自古把冬至視同僅次于年節的“小年”、“亞歲”。既然如此,就有相似于過大年的除夕和元旦之分了。所以陜北人過冬至有兩天:一為中部和南部的“冬除日”,或被稱作“二除夜”的;長城一線則過“長至日”。冬至民俗文化運作主要有如下內容:

1、冬除日“熬冬”。冬除日又叫“熬冬”。民國二十二年《葭縣志》載:"冬至前夕飯酒食肉,啖羊首,謂之熬冬。"簡明扼要地點明時間--冬至前夕,指出名目--熬冬,陳述飯食--羊首、酒、肉。熬冬全在一種氣氛。

首先是吃熬冬飯。熬冬飯料因其有固定模式,故早在一個月前的“小雪”就開始準備了。按陜北氣候,羊養至小雪最肥,"小雪宰羊"已成定式。而陜北中部講究剔骨肉,宰羊之后,割下羊頭、羊蹄及五臟六腑。羊肉從骨架上剔下來卷成卷,稱作"剔骨肉",供市售或大年用。其余頭、蹄、內臟、骨頭(略帶肉)統之曰"頭蹄里物"或曰“羊下水”、“羊雜碎”。所有這些,全部是熬冬的材料。而且是冬至的特備材料。冬除日,主婦們把這些去毛、蛻皮,收拾干凈"一鍋熬"。本身就有了"熬冬"味。

其次是“炒百蟲足”。在陜北,冬至必炒。包括黃豆、高粱、玉米、小麥等五谷和麻子、瓜子、花生等油料作物一應現成的炒料,都要在這天炒食。還有一樣可供炒食的東西,那就是把熟的軟米糕搓成指頭粗細的條,然后切成見方的塊,稱作“糕圪瘩”,這也要炒一番。如此熬料、炒料之外,貧寒之家各盡其便,有食豬肉、紅棗、糯米、矮瓜燜飯者,有食糯米糕者。最不行的,因"邑人最重此節"(《神木縣志》),"即貧家必煮豆腐以食"(《米脂縣志》)。這些吃食多于白天準備,傍晚熬煮、攪炒,如此,則拉開了熬冬的序幕:大鍋熱氣騰騰,咕咕嘟嘟熬煮有聲,小鍋嗶嗶剝剝炒了一樣一樣,頗能顯出陜北主婦的看家本領,未曾到嘴,已熬味十足了。

接下來是吃。闔家圍坐炕頭,羊腦為主,置于正中,四周擺滿各種“下水”、炒豆、花生之類,盡情食之。有人緣好者,還拉來未及備辦熬冬物料者共熬冬至,品評天氣冷暖,但道來年桑麻。亦有持之相饋贈如《懷遠縣志》所載橫山縣人以"花馓、黍糕相饋,鄉里交相拜節如元旦"者。自然,“熬冬”者,一在于由生變熟;二在于堅持把全年最長的一夜“熬”到天亮,與除夜"熬年"同義。這在當地老百姓有說法:“冬至熬一熬,來年好一好;冬至炒一炒,來年好一好。”

2、卜豐歉,鎮邪祟。清光緒三十年刻本《綏德州志》載:“冬至日,老農以天氣覘來年豐歉。二、三、四九宜雪宜寒。無雪而暖,次年多蟲傷禾。”陜北人一年中有兩次以水冰凍后卜豐歉的習俗。一是冬至,二除夜盛一碗水平置于磨頂正中即被稱作"磨臍"的部位。待旦觀其結冰,哪一邊冰冒得高,則視何方為豐收。還要察看冰之裂紋。裂紋朝向何方,或紋長、紋深、紋多,則視何方為豐,相反的方向則為歉。冰高和裂紋一致則人人會看;如相左,則由老農細觀默察,綜合決斷,全看老農的“金口玉言”了。類似的冰凍在臘八時還要進行一次。不過這時不是水而是剛下米的臘八粥湯了。在無定河兩岸的橫山山脈一帶,古風更淳,凌晨雞叫、半夜子時各戶子弟擁向泉邊、井畔搶挑頭擔水,說是挑上頭擔水,可爭得來年豐收,農家把這叫作“搶籽頭”。

另有冰炭鎮門的習俗。各家以冰,炭各一塊置于門之兩側。炭寓青龍置于左,冰寓白虎置于右。有青龍白虎鎮門,可辟邪祟,保一家平安。這就是民國三十三年《米脂縣志》所載的:“長至日前一夕,以冰炭鎮門,獻羔祭酒,闔家歡飲”的事象。

3、冬至日送寒衣祭祖塋--少數民族風俗的傳承。陜北長城一線,特別是府谷、神木兩縣,不過冬除而過冬至。冬至正日,必于太陽落山后,各家男婦持果饌和寒衣送往祖先墳上,并持煤炭于祖先墳前搭火堆,拜如清明。所特殊者,精細人家還要正而八經地以白紙剪成簡單的棉服狀,夾層中實以棉花,成為十足的防寒衣,持之于墳焚之,草率者也必以白紙裹棉花敷衍之。而且此地人沒有“十月一,送寒衣”之說。顯然,這是把十月一日歸并于此了。清道光本《神木縣志》載“冬至數十內,男女墓祭”;清乾隆本《府谷縣志》亦載,"長至日,設肴果祀祖考,并祖考冢前以石炭烘火。""其禮如元旦,亦備紙張、牲醴拜祖先,定邊縣則“于門外焚紙錁,祀祖先。”這一風俗與塞外黑山少數民族過冬至有關。《燕北雜記》上說,契丹人死葬于黑山,“凡死人悉屬此山神”,“魂為黑山神所管”,所以于冬至日要殺山羊,白馬、白雁去祭山神,"其禮甚嚴,非祭不敢近山。"祭魂是祀祖,祭山神,則是以生“血代酒”,祈求山神善待乃祖之意。這一民俗事象恰恰體現了陜北節日的多民族融合文化的性質。

4、禮當敬先生,鞋襪奉公婆。古代講究天、地、君、親、師,陜北民間冬至節,舊時是敬先生的節日,可視為最早的"教師節"。這一天,照例放假。村塾中學生和家長代表領上高年級學生,帶上各家籌措之雞、羊頭、白面禮饃和柴禾等往村塾中揖拜先生,謂之"追節"。此時學董、家長與先生寒暄,互道辛苦;學生則灑掃庭除、生火爐,表示清潔和溫暖。此風延長縣和黃陵縣最盛,筆者幼時就讀于黃陵縣太賢小學,跟家長向老師追過節,及今已五十多個年頭了,仍歷歷在目,倍感親切和自在。

以新鞋,新襪敬公婆,也是陜北媳婦的一個冬節項目。陜北地氣寒冷,故鞋是一般的布暖鞋,千層底,古時沒有尼龍襪,則媳婦多以土布做成夾層襪子。襪底、襪墊繡以吉祥圖案,如公婆喜歡陜北手工作坊特產"氈窩子",則必是媳婦用自己的私房錢買來,且必須親自以黑緞條沿邊鑲口,把皮子剪成云兒圖案,鑲于“氈窩子”頭,此一為結實,二寓登云,三表示此手是媳婦親自過手的。向公婆敬獻鞋襪,意思是“助養元氣”,令公婆足下陽氣升騰,功利上求其暖度九九,心理上寓其吉利,倫理上以示孝悌,處理好婆媳關系。

5、"數九"農諺。以冬至為臨界點,從時間上說,白晝漸長,黑夜漸短,直至夏至,周而復始。陜北農家在表示這種晝夜時段時,多以諺語標示之。黃陵,富縣、洛川在一帶以農具杈齒、杈把和房椽之長短作比喻:"過一冬至,長一杈齒;過一臘八,長一杈把;過一年,長一椽;過了正月十五,長的沒模(即"沒譜"之意)"。還有"交一九,長一手"、"過了五豆(臘月初五),長一斧頭"等等。但從氣溫上講,一定相對時間內還要下降,這樣就有了"數九"的講究。

"數九"與"三伏"是兩相對應的農家計算冷暖的方式,舊時稱冬至為"入九"。古代數九講究單日起算,即冬至這一天恰逢陰歷的單日,那么這一天就是頭九的第一天,名曰"聯冬九",如逢雙日,則推后一天,從翌日起九,名曰"穿冬九"。以后似約定俗成為冬至日數九,歷經九九八十一天。寒氣全消,艷陽高照,故有"九九艷陽天"之稱。《九九歌》就是流行于全國各地記錄氣候變化的歌訣。

陜北地處中溫帶區,而又屬西風帶,冬季受干燥而寒冷的變性極地大陸性氣團控制,形成低濕、寒冷、降水稀少的氣候特點。所以陜北與其它地方,"九九歌"的表述方式不盡相同。"頭九二九,凍破碓臼;三九四九,拉門叫狗;五九六九,水到浮頭;七九八九,陽河看柳,九九又一九,犁牛遍地走。"另有"三九三,凍破磚","三九不冷看六九,六九不冷看春寒","數伏數寒,數九數暖"等等,或述及氣候變化,或述及農事活動,甚而至于闡釋數九與三伏冷暖的辯證關系,均據其地域特點,相對科學而貼切。比如說,人們總以為三九最冷,也是事實,但對陜北而言,冬至之后屬最冷的天氣。

陜北歷史上記錄到的極端最低氣溫為1954年12月28日的-32.7C。而這天,恰是當年頭九的第六天。所以"頭九二九,凍破碓臼(舂米工具)"也是有道理的。該冷時還要冷,該下雪時還得下雪,這樣就有了處理冷和雪與來年農事及豐歉的大量農諺:"熱在三伏,冷在三九","冬至不過不冷,夏至不過不熱","三九不寒不收""三九不冷夏不收,三伏不熱秋不收","沒有九雪,難降伏雨","頭九有雪,九九有雪;九九有雪,伏伏有雨","大雪年年有,不在三九在四九"等等,總結了數九時段內冬寒與伏熱,科寒與豐歉的辯證關系。"冬寒不算害,春寒寒半年",可見冷凍也是一種能量,遲釋放不如早釋放,是有科學道理的。

陜北冬至節的文化解說相較林林總總的歲時節日習俗,冬至不算最具濃烈氣氛的節日,但在古代,冬至節卻備受抬舉,和過年、端午、中秋并列為四個最大的節日。而從某一方面看,則又不同:除了過大年、元宵、端午、七夕、中秋等以月球繞地球的陰歷節日外,從科學天文學、氣象學及農事、農時意義上講,以實實在在的二十四節氣認真過節者,除了清明節之外,非冬至莫屬了,此其一;冬至節在目前傳統風俗急劇變異和消歇情況下,在陜北卻能較完好地得以傳承,究何原因,值得探討,此其二;更重要的,二十四節氣是始于冬至,并以冬至為臨界點。它的節日習俗并不限于節日本身,而與相連的是數九,其與天文、氣象、農時、農事相結合的科學、民俗兩相融的膠著狀態值得探討,此其三。本此三者,謹試釋其文化蘊涵。

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