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唐詩宋詞里的端午習俗

作者:不詳來源:網絡2019-05-28 09:56:17
唐詩宋詞里的端午習俗

端午節是我國最具有民族特色的傳統節日之一。每逢端午,歷代詩詞作家都會以他們敏感的藝術細胞,創作出許多充滿民俗情趣的詩詞,讓后人得以管窺當年端午節的詩意景象。

據中國民俗學會理事孫正國教授統計,在《全唐詩》和《全宋詞》中共收錄了95首端午詩詞。唐代有23位詩人創作了28首端午詩歌,宋代有46位詞人創作了67首端午詩詞。有17位詩人創作了2首以上,宋代著名文學家蘇軾和著名政治家史浩都創作了4首。

唐代最“牛”的端午詩堪稱唐玄宗李隆基所作的《端午三殿宴群臣探得神字》。唐玄宗曾在端午節之際宴請群臣,賞賜飛白扇并賦詩。“五月符天數,五音調夏鈞。舊來傳五日,無事不稱神。穴枕通靈氣,長絲續命人。四時花競巧,九子粽爭新。……”

孫正國分析說,從唐玄宗這首詩中可見當時的端午傳統,過節有五天,而且在節日期間要聽“五音”、系五色絲續命索、采花佩戴、食粽子等,反映了在唐代的端午習俗已趨于成熟,是人們普遍遵行的重大節日。

“端午競渡”是一項深受歡迎的重要節俗。唐代詩人張說、張建封、儲光羲等,都曾專門寫過“觀競渡”的詩。在岳州觀看了端午競渡之后,詩人張說即興寫的《岳州觀競渡》,十分真實生動地展現了唐代南方地區的端午習俗。“畫作飛鳧艇,雙雙競拂流。低裝山色變,急棹水華浮。土尚三閭俗,江傳二女游。齊歌迎孟姥,獨舞送陽侯。鼓發南湖溠,標爭西驛樓。并驅常詫速,非畏日光逎。”

唐代詩人儲光羲在《官池莊觀競渡》一詩中,還記錄了當時端午競渡時間是在落日之后傍晚時分,這一時間的突出,讓人們對端午競渡祭祀神靈的性質有了更加深入了解。“落日吹簫管,清池發棹歌。船爭先后渡,岸激去采波。水葉藏魚鳥,林花間綺羅。躑躅仙女處,猶似望天河。”

唐代的端午詩歌,除了記述節日的繁華與意緒,也時常附寄詩人的遭遇和理想。唐代詩人殷堯藩曾寫過一首《端午日》詩。“少年佳節倍多情,老去誰知感慨生。不效艾符趨習俗,但祈蒲酒話升平。鬢絲日日添白頭,榴錦年年照眼明。千載賢愚同瞬息,幾人湮沒幾垂名。”在借端午抒發人生感慨的同時,詩人也不忘記錄當時端午習俗有艾符、蒲酒等節慶事物。

宋代的端午詩詞對節俗的描述同樣豐富而細膩。著名詩人陸游曾寫過一首《乙卯重五詩》。“重五山村好,榴花忽已繁。粽包分兩髻,艾束著危冠。舊俗方儲藥,贏軀亦點丹。日斜吾事畢,一笑向杯盤。”這首五律詩向我們展示當時端午節已有衛生保健的內涵。

宋代詩人朱松曾在端午節病臥異鄉,他寫了一首《重五》詩。“異鄉逢五節,臥病此衰翁。竹筍迸新紫,榴花開小紅。山深人寂寂,氣潤雨蒙蒙。煮酒無尋處,菖蒲在水中。”詩人在描述孤寂心情的同時,也提及了端午節俗中的竹筍、石榴花、菖蒲酒具等端午節物,可以看出當時端午節俗豐富的人文意蘊。

賽龍舟

“龍舟競渡”是端午節一道壯觀的風景,如今已是國家級非物質文化遺產。宋朝時,南方有寬廣的水域,為賽龍舟提供了便利,因而龍舟競渡場面更盛,所以在宋代詩詞中有大量賽龍舟的描寫。

減字木蘭花·競渡(宋·黃裳)

紅旗高舉,飛出深深楊柳渚。鼓擊春雷,直破煙波遠遠回。歡聲震地,驚退萬人爭戰氣。金碧樓西,銜得錦標第一歸。

解析:詞人黃裳描述的是一次場面激烈、熱鬧非凡的賽龍舟場面。競渡的龍舟高高地掛起一面面紅旗,從柳陰深處的水洲出擊。鼓聲像春天的雷電,沖破煙霧,劈開波濤,直奔遠處奪標目的地。圍觀人群的歡呼聲震天動地,有驚退萬人爭戰的豪氣。在金碧輝煌的小閣樓西面,奪得第一名錦標的龍舟回來了。

掛艾草、飲菖蒲酒

在古代,端午節還是祛病防疫的節日,所以有掛艾草和菖蒲的傳統習俗。艾草和菖蒲具有一定的防病作用,懸掛艾草和菖蒲可以驅蚊蠅、蟲蟻,凈化空氣,提神通竅。菖蒲還可以制成酒,具有性溫味辛特點,對肺胃均有益,可延年益壽。

端午日(唐·殷堯藩)

少年佳節倍多情,老去誰知感慨生。

不效艾符趨習俗,但祈蒲酒話升平。

鬢絲日日添白頭,榴錦年年照眼明。

千載賢愚同瞬息,幾人湮沒幾垂名。

解析:殷堯藩在借端午抒發人生感慨的同時,也記錄了當時端午有掛艾草、飲菖蒲酒等習俗。年事已高的詩人在端午這天已懶得繼續掛艾草和驅邪符的習慣,只祈望一盞菖蒲酒,共話天下太平。鬢發漸漸銀白,但石榴花還是年年應節開。在歲月面前,無論圣賢與否都只是瞬息過客,誰知道會有幾人湮沒無聞,有幾人名垂青史。

拴五色絲線、沐蘭湯

在端午節,一般會佩戴中國古代崇拜的象征五方五行的吉祥色"青、紅、白、黑、黃"的五色絲線以辟邪,古代也叫五彩長命縷。而沐蘭湯則是端午節的一種衛生習俗,身著漢服的女性端著艾葉水,人們排好隊依次走到主祭面前,主祭用菖蒲草沾盆里的水,在參加活動的人的雙手、額頭、脖頸輕輕拂拭一下,以示驅除晦氣。

浣溪沙(宋·蘇軾)

輕汗微微透碧紈,明朝端午浴芳蘭。流香漲膩滿晴川。

彩線輕纏紅玉臂,小符斜掛綠云鬟。佳人相見一千年。

解析:微微小汗濕透了碧色的細絹,明日端午節用芳蘭草沐浴。流香酒般的浴水、油膩布滿大晴的江面。五彩花線輕輕地纏在紅玉色手臂上,小小的符篆斜掛在耳下的黑色發髻上。與朝云同過端午節,天長地久,白頭偕老。

吃粽子

早在春秋時期,古人便用菰葉包黍米成牛角狀,稱"角黍",用于祭拜祖先和神靈。到晉代,粽子才被正式定為端午節食品。歷代文人雅士對粽子情有獨鐘,在端午這天,他們在飲酒品粽之余,還以粽子為題材給后人留下了許多膾炙人口的佳作。

彩縷碧筠粽,香粳白玉團。

——元稹《表夏十首之十》

四時花競巧,九子粽爭新。

——李隆基《端午三殿宴群臣探得神字》

唐代的粽子主要以糯米為原料,用竹葉包制而成,摻以甜味輔料,粽子白瑩如玉、誘人食欲。

民間做粽子的商戶還會把大小不一且形狀各異的九個粽子穿成一串,而且一定要用九種顏色的絲繩扎成五彩繽紛的效果,稱作“九子粽”。

在唐代皇宮中,會舉行端午節日宴會,取名為“三殿宴”。唐玄宗就是在宴會上品嘗九子粽后,隨興而作“四時花競巧,九子粽爭新”。

盤中共解青菰粽,哀甚將簪艾一枝。

——陸游《乙丑重五二首 其一》

時于粽里得楊梅。

——蘇軾

水團冰浸砂糖裹。

——張耒《失調名》

在宋代,不僅有“以艾葉浸米裹之”的艾香粽子,還有蜜餞粽。大文豪蘇軾本身還是一位美食家,他喜食粽子,品味以蜜餞為餡的粽子后,留下“時于粽里得楊梅”這么一句詩。

張耒則描寫了吃冰鎮粽子撒白糖的情形,冰鎮粽子并不是用冰冰鎮,因為糯米遇低溫久了會回生,而是把包好的粽子煮熟后放在井水里冰鎮著,吃的時候撒上白糖。

順著兩千多年的粽香,讀罷唐詩宋詞,我們會發現端午節不僅是一個吃的節日,還是一個玩的節日,更一個講究衛生提升生活質量的節日。

讓我們一起品讀唐詩宋詞,體驗端午習俗,不忘節俗初心,歡度端午佳節。

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