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湖南桃江春節習俗

作者:汪正初 胡統安來源:網絡2019-06-25 21:12:09
湖南桃江春節習俗

中國的農歷正月初一這一天叫做春節,又叫大年初一。春節是最古老的節日,迄今已有近四千年歷史。桃江人歷來很重視過春節,在桃江人的心目中,春節為一歲之首,這一天過得好不好,寓示全年利弊得失。

桃江人過春節有如下主要習俗:

出天行  過去,出天行的時間遲早不一,大體以四至五更雄雞打鳴為準。自從有了鐘表,城鎮鄉村出天行的時間大都集中在子時的凌晨一點左右。守歲看中央電視臺春節聯歡晚會的人們待十二點一過,迅即拉開大門,在門兩旁貼上春聯,搬出鞭炮,放在門前平地燃放。鞭炮品種很多,有千鞭、萬子頭、電光炮、彩珠筒,如今又新添了煙花、桶炮等。千家萬戶的鞭炮集中在同一時刻燃放,打破了夜的寂靜,茫茫大地彩炮轟鳴,萬山回應,聲音此起彼伏,夜空被成千上萬煙花裝點,人們仿佛立時置身在了一個五彩繽紛的全新童話世界。放鞭炮一是為了驅邪氣,除穢氣;二是為了迎新納吉。《幼學瓊林?歲時》說:“爆竹一聲除舊,桃符萬戶更新。”

這里的“爆竹”是指鞭炮,桃江人至今仍然稱鞭炮為爆竹。

關于爆竹一名的來歷,《該聞錄》記載:從前有個叫李畋的人住在深山老林,他的鄰居被山魈(桃江人稱“魈鬼子”)害苦了,李畋叫鄰居每天早晚在庭院用楠竹燒火,楠竹遇火爆炸,響聲驚天動地,魈鬼子被嚇跑,再也不敢來騷擾了。何謂“桃符”?《山海經》說:桃符為黃帝所創,即用桃木板一塊,上繪一神人像,掛在門的上方,用來驅鬼。這種桃符,就是桃江人所說的“吞口”。所謂“吞口”,即用一塊巨型桃木或樟木板,上面彩繪一巨獅頭,獅頭怒目圓睜,青面獠牙,獅額書一“王”字,張開血盆大口,像要把某個龐然大物一口吞下去,樣子著實嚇人,故稱“吞口”。

過去桃江鄉下幾乎家家戶戶在主門上方掛上“吞口”,有庭院的則把“吞口”掛在庭院大門上方。意在驅鬼避邪消災。出天行燃放鞭炮,其實是在創設一種熱鬧氛圍,有錢愛熱鬧的人家一次要燃放好幾百上千元鞭炮。上了年紀的人則在燃放鞭炮前到大門口點上香燭燒化紙錢,望天跪拜作揖,叫做“拜天地菩薩”。放完鞭炮,敬完天地,從外面肩一捆或挑一擔柴或象征性地拾上一把干柴進屋,叫做“進柴(財)”。柴(財)進屋然后關緊大門上床睡覺,,叫做“封財門”。待天明下床開門再放一掛鞭炮,叫做“開財門”,然后生火燒茶做飯,新的一年新的生活于是開始了

拜年  天亮后,全家人聚集到廳堂,晚輩拜尊長,叫做“拜年”。分了家的兒子媳婦們早上都紛紛趕來給父母拜年請早安。新中國成立后,真正下跪拜年已不多見,大都是口頭上喊“給某某拜年”,或是相互用作揖代替“拜”年。吃完早餐,大人們提著香紙蠟燭、鞭炮到墳山給祖先們拜年,年輕人則自發出門邀上二三知己,挨家給四鄰尊長拜年。拜年先往上邊人家屋里走,叫做“步步高升”。桃江民風淳樸,桃江人熱情好客,給四鄰拜年,每到一家,對方都會用甜酒沖蛋、或紅糖沖蛋或面蛋茶或油煎荷包蛋熱情招待來客,叫做“呷伴茶”。還要擺上五個至七個碟子,碟子里盛有炒花生、瓜子、花耳、炒玉米、油炸薯片、餅干、糖果之類,請客人吃,叫做“呷碟子”。吃完伴茶,主人又端來擂茶、泡茶敬客。主人好客,待你吃完茶,便將花生瓜子糖果等“碟子”往你袋子里倒,或者干脆用紙把“碟子”包好,用塑料袋子盛好硬塞給你。一個上午拜完年回家,大小袋子被塞得拍滿,手里還提著幾包。大人們因為要忙事,不能家家戶戶從從容容喝茶聊天,只零星喝幾家,在其他人家蜻蜓點水般拜完年便回家忙事去了。還有一種人拜年,只推開門在門外向主人說聲“給您老拜年噠”打個招呼,不坐聊也不喝茶就告辭,這叫做“拜跑馬年”。初一拜完四鄰,有妻室的正月初二就領妻子攜兒女到岳家拜年去了。

拜年講究先后次序。過去有提示拜年次序的順口溜:“初一崽,初二郎,初三初四拜八方,初五初六還不來,罵你的娘。”

又說:“拜年拜到初七八,掏光壇子濾光塔。”

這段順口溜的意思是:大年初一兒子給父母拜年,初二女婿給岳家拜年,初三初四給其他親朋戚友拜年。后面幾句是舊時那些貧苦人家添加進去的順口溜,他們辛勞一年下來,所剩無幾,物資匱乏,招待客人不起,留著待客的一點點菜蔬快要完蛋了,客人卻遲遲不來,怎么不惱火?其實按照桃江的傳統習俗,拜年一直可以拜到正月十五,出了十五,不講新年,人們全身心投入到了行業和農事中,不再講拜年了。

接年飯  桃江人春節期間有接年飯的習俗。大年初一主要接自己一家已分家的祖父母、父母、兄弟姐妹等家人吃飯,有的還增接鄰近的伯叔、堂兄弟姊妹。從正月初二起,各方親戚朋友都相互接吃年飯。接吃年飯,桌上的菜肴是豐盛的,一桌一般上十道菜,或十二、十三四道不等,最多達十六道以上。桌上主菜一般是豬、雞、魚、鴨、牛、羊肉及其內臟,有條件的還加上鱉肉、龜肉和各種野味。還要不缺筍子,接年飯的席面一般用冬筍。

舊時窮人家請客吃飯,小孩子是不讓入席的,因為怕小孩子上席狼吞虎咽亂吃菜。請客人吃飯,席上要有陪客,鄉下人包括財主人家設家宴,陪客一般由主人自己擔任,邊陪吃邊與客人拉家常,懂點文墨的人還相互說些周公古禮。“細貌的財主。”從前有個財主,兒子在天灣五卅中學讀書,正月初頭,幾個玩得好的同學到財主家做客。入席前,財主湊到兒子耳邊交待,這桌席由爺老子陪客,你不會陪。財主勸學生吃菜,先手拿筷子指著某道菜說“請吃”,自己并不動手夾菜,而是放下筷子繼續與學生拉家常。主人別出心裁不動筷,客人也不好動筷吃,因為桃江歷來有“主人不呷客不飲”的說法。一餐飯吃完,席上的菜基本完好無損。散席后,主人把菜端進柜子,留著下次待客。如今人們普遍過上了溫飽和小康生活,市場物質豐富,應有盡有,無須靠省菜下次待客。席上,主人生怕客人拘謹吃不好,時不時忙著往客人碗里夾菜。

過去席面不管是豐盛還是淡薄,有一道菜是不曾缺少的,那就是心肺(豬肺)湯。那時候桃江人特愛吃心肺湯,有順口溜道:“呷酒還是高粱酒,呷肉還是心肺湯,愛耍還是滿姑娘。”“心肺湯,滾滾燙,調羹一響精打光。”

如今除了藥用,很少有人食豬肺了。大年初一接吃年飯做飯菜與其他日子不同,飯菜都是先一天年三十做好了的,現成加熱就可以上桌食用。年三十酒飯菜備得多,寓示飲食有余,能吃到來年,來年飲食豐足。又因為大年初一是廚房所有刀具的生日,所以在這一天廚房刀具必須閑置休息不得使用,如果使用就會犯忌。

在眾多習俗中,春節這一天有許多禁忌,例如大年初一清早起來不能放快,所謂“放快”,就是快口快嘴說些不吉利的話。“死”、“瘟”、“鬼”、“光”、“虎”、“蛇”、“鼠”、“殺”之類的詞語是絕對不能用的,用了就是犯禁。

硬要用,只能用別的詞語替代,如年老之人死了要說“某某老嘎噠”、“倒噠黃栗樹”,年輕人死了要說“尺頭不長”;“光”說成“索利”,“蛇”說成“溜弓”,“老鼠”說成“高客”,“切菜”說成“割菜”,“魔芋”說成“發芋”,“沒有”說成“多噠”,“虎”說成“貓”、“野貓子”,地方上玩武術耍虎也說成“耍貓”。桃江話腐乳的“腐”與“虎”同音,所以“腐乳”也諱言成“貓乳”。大年初一如果有哪個小孩放了快,大人們就會立即接過話頭往吉利的方面說過來。桃江上鄉有個叫敦伯的老翁特信禁忌,村中一青年好玩惡作劇,教唆敦伯鄰居的小兒子大年初一清早在敦伯家門口放喉叫嚷:“清早起,出惡鬼!打開門,出老蟲(老虎)......”

敦伯聽見,打開門一看是鄰居小兒,正要開罵,發現自己口中將要吐出的全是些不雅不吉利的臭話子,便忍住火氣急急說轉來:“黃口孺子,出言無忌......”過了幾天,敦伯從小孩口中了解到實情,把那玩惡作劇的青年臭罵了一頓。敦伯之所以過幾天才罵,是因為按桃江習俗,大年初一這一天是不能罵人的,大年初一罵了人,這一年都會罵人。自己的言行決不可與老祖宗的規矩相牴牾。就因為這一習俗,讓敦伯忍口好幾天。桃江人在春節這一天,小孩失手打爛東西,大人是決不責備的,不但不責備,心里還挺高興,因為桃江歷來有“年三十打殺,初一打發”的說法,大年初一打爛東西,意味著新的一年招財進寶,諸事順風。故意打爛東西則不在此列。(攝影:諶海燕)

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