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當前位置:首頁 > 節日民俗 > 傳統節日 > 湖南桃江清明節習俗

湖南桃江清明節習俗

作者:不詳來源:網絡2019-06-24 20:38:35
湖南桃江清明節習俗

每年的清明節,多出現在農歷二月下旬至三月中旬(公歷4月4日至4月6日)這個時段。西周以前,已有節日風俗,周代規范節日風俗,并將它提升到“禮”的高度。春秋戰國開始,歷法日趨完善,十九年七閏的四分歷出現,一年二十四個節氣基本形成。“清明”一詞最早見于《淮南子?天文訓》:春分后加十五日,斗指乙,則為清明。

桃江民間掛喪掃墓,有“前三日,后三日”的說法,即清明節的前三天、后三天都可進墳山掛掃,把清明節包括在內,則掃墓的有效時間為七天。在古代,墳和墓有別,平民墳墓叫“墳”,顯貴墳墓叫“墓”,如今不存在這種區分了,統一稱為墳墓。

清明掛喪掃墓是傳統孝道文化的傳承,是中華民族養生事死、慎終追遠美德的一種具體行為。掛喪掃墓,分個體掛掃和集體掛掃兩類。

個體掛掃即一家一戶的掛喪掃墓。一般掛掃高、曾、祖、考四代先人墳墓,也有的增加天、烈兩代先人,增掛祖塋上溯到六代以至八九代;有的還加掛附近無嗣親屬或客死者的墳塋。掛喪者事先到冥器商店買足配套的掛喪用品,民間一套掛喪用品包括用皮紙制的掛喪錢一柱、香三根、蠟燭一支、錢紙一封、鞭炮一掛,一墳一套。當年入土的新墳,掛喪錢外套紅綠彩紙;后來出現了繡球型的掛喪錢,色紅,用網袋兜著帶往墓地。另帶一把畬刀。走上墳頭,砍去墳堆及羅圍內的竹樹茅草,取一根長約三尺的筆直枝桿,取一條掛喪錢掛系到桿頂,將桿插入墳頂。然后插香燭于先人腳頭,點燭焚香,燒錢化紙,燃放鞭炮,口中禱念,跪拜作揖。這一處墳塋掛掃完畢,又到別處掛掃。全部掛掃畢,回家備酒飯葷蔬,在中堂神龕前下飯敲磬鳴鞭炮祭拜先人。如果要給墳塋加土、立碑或造墓圍,桃江民俗,要在寒食節那一天動土。民間傳說,寒食這一天是受了皇封的日子,沒有任何煞氣,什么地方的土都可以動,不必忌諱什么,不會犯煞。

集體掛掃分支房掛掃和宗族闔族掛掃。

支房掛掃是一個血緣房族的后裔們共同掛掃本房族祖先的墳墓。掛掃費用由本房族成員按戶頭攤派。掛掃活動前,由房長組織本房各戶代表開會做出具體安排,明確掛掃路線,然后兵分數路前往各處墳山掛掃。掛掃完畢,掛喪者集中到支祠或某個中心地點祀祖。

宗族掛掃人員為各房代表,掛掃對象為本宗族的共同祖先。一般選擇天氣晴好的日子。

族長事先會通知各房推選出代表,在約定的日子到宗祠開會商議掛掃事宜。掛掃用品除掛喪錢、香燭、錢紙、鞭炮與各家各戶掛掃用品基本相同外,還備有多條響銃,掛喪掃墓時鳴放。有的還增加耍龍、耍獅子等。掛掃完畢,集中在宗祠祀祖。傳統各類祭祀有七個基本環節:

一、迎神禮;二、上香禮;三、三獻禮;四、侑食禮;五、飲福受胙禮;六、祭五方五帝土府尊神禮;七、省棺禮。

但使用場合不盡相同,一般來說,婚育壽誕喜慶慶典祭祀用第二、三、四個環節;喪禮用第一、二、三、四、六、七個環節;各家各戶安福神、祭墳山用第二、三、六個環節;在宗祠或支祠公屋祀祖,則用第一、二、三、四、五個環節。

過去清明掛喪掃墓靠徒步出行,如路途遙遠,一天走不到,還要投宿酒家;如今掃墓是以車代步。如今每年清明節,黨政機關、企事業單位、學校師生等組團前往各地革命陵園掃墓,祭拜英烈和革命先輩。此外,時下還流行網上掃墓,使清明節掃墓活動變得更加豐富多彩。

清明掃墓的目的主要是追思先輩,勖勉后人,緬懷先輩的光輝業績和不朽精神,以先輩們為楷模,承先啟后,繼往開來,成就前人未竟的遺愿夢想。

清明節最主要的活動是掛喪掃墓。清明節這一天,也有不少年輕夫婦攜著細伢子在田野、河邊踏青春游、放風箏、蕩秋千、釣魚、嬉戲,成為清明節的另一類風俗畫,畫面著實很美,讓沉浸在綿綿哀思中的人們,眼睛為之一亮。

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