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當前位置:首頁 > 節日民俗 > 傳統節日 > 土家族端午節

土家族端午節

作者:不詳來源:網絡2019-05-30 13:45:46
土家族端午節

我國的少數民族之一的土家族也過端午節。

土家族過端午節分為“頭端午”(即農歷五月初五)、“中端午”(即農歷五月十五)、“末端午”(即農歷五月二十五),過端午節時一般只接已出嫁的姑娘、女婿和至親好友來家做客,主人家用準備好的粽子、艾蒿蛋(即把艾蒿葉、大蒜與雞蛋一起煮熟)等豐盛的飯菜款待客人,客人一般都一早到主人家,先聊聊家常,打打撲克等,輕松愉快,其樂融融。

在過去,端午節這天還要喝雄黃酒,據說可驅邪、避災、防蛇咬。

土家族端午節

土家族過端午節前還有一項很重要的工作,那就是在野外采來艾蒿插在門上和窗臺上,據說可以辟邪和驅蚊蟲,因此,土家族就有“門口不插蒿,死后變烏梢(一種蛇)”的說法,端午節后再將已干枯的艾蒿儲藏備用。

艾蒿在土家族生活習俗中用途廣泛,端午節門上插蒿的習俗一直沿襲至今,用蒿起源于何時、何人已無從考證,幾百年來,它卻是土家族端午節中不可缺少的一個重要部分。

土家族端午節

石門土家族的端午習俗

石門西北山區土家族有過三個端午的習俗,分別是五月初五、五月十五和五月二十五,分別被稱為“大端陽”、“二端陽午”、“三端陽”。三個端陽的節慶活動大致相同,如果有人沒過大端陽就在五月十五或五月二十五過二端陽或三端陽。還有俗語說:“有心拜端午,六月也不遲。”石門土家族仍保留著很多民俗活動:吃粽子、插艾蒿、渫水賽龍舟、喝雄黃酒等。

土家族端午節

恩施土家族的端午習俗

恩施人把端午節細分成早端午、中端午、末端午三個節。

節日這天,當家的起得特別早,換上草鞋后便磨亮鐮刀,插在木架子背簍里,一邊抽葉子煙一邊往后坡爬,以早點割到帶露水的艾蒿插到大門上,這樣,就能保佑一家平安。

主婦洗完臉后第一件事便是制作雄黃酒(中藥雄黃加大蒜,用高度包谷酒浸泡而成),待細娃兒從被窩里一鉆出來就往耳朵上、臉上、鼻子上抹,邊抹邊給小娃壯膽:“今后蟲啊、蛇啊都不敢靠近你了呢。”

土家族端午節

做完這一切,主婦開始忙正事——包粽子,恩施粽子的內餡以糯米為主,不加鹽,不加糖,也不加肉菜果脯等食物。煮好了的粽子,第一個品嘗者是家里的小娃,第二個便是左鄰右舍,主婦一般用筲箕端著,一家家送,親戚鄰里的互相饋贈,成了鄉下過端午節一道特別的風景。

端午節是恩施農村準女婿最喜歡的節日,這一天,他們必定到準媳婦家去看望準岳父母。回家時,準岳父母在打發的眾多禮物中,必定有一頂草帽,因五月太陽大,對準女婿回家的路上和以后出門好遮太陽的關愛,當然更主要的意思是,被打發了草帽,表示準岳父母已經同意了婚事。這種習俗稱之為“討草帽”,因此恩施的未婚男青年過“討草帽”的端午節,比誰都過得有意義。

土家族端午節

恩施人過端午還有一種叫“打端午”的習俗,兩親家之間,男方一家要在這一天看望女方一家,所帶禮物是用一只條盤,放上粽子、發糕,插上鮮紅的石榴花,恭恭敬敬地呈送到女方長者面前。在過去那種男尊女卑的社會,“打端午”這種習俗體現了男方對女方的尊重,難能可貴,是一種具有現代精神文明風尚的習俗,值得回憶與推崇。

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