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當前位置:首頁 > 節日民俗 > 傳統節日 > 山西澤州中秋習俗

山西澤州中秋習俗

作者:不詳來源:網絡2019-03-11 08:13:20
山西澤州中秋習俗

中秋是我國傳統上十分重要的民俗節日,佳節到來之際,全國各地都有著豐富多彩的節日習俗,而在山西澤州地區的中秋習俗更被列入國家非物質文化遺產保護項目。

澤州是山西省晉城市的古稱,如今晉城市下屬亦設有澤州縣,在這一地區流傳的“澤州中秋習俗”乃是山西省有名的地方傳統民俗文化,更于2011年被列入國家非物質文化遺產保護項目。

中秋節自古就有賞月的習俗,地處澤州地區的玨山一帶,自古就是祭月賞月的極佳場所。據介紹,當地人將祭月、拜月稱為拜“月婆婆”。每逢中秋之夜,當皎潔的月亮冉冉升起時,當地家家戶戶都要進行祭月活動。

玨山的自然風光與傳統中秋節習俗、天體崇拜、月亮崇拜相得益彰,使得中秋文化在此展現出與眾不同、獨具特色的風韻,號稱“玨山月,天下奇。”具有了極為豐厚的人文底蘊。

玨山位于晉城市區東南二十公里處,其核心地區是以今澤州縣玨山為中心,幅射至三晉、豫西北、冀南等中原地區。“玨山吐月”為古澤州八景和晉城四大名景之首,這一勝景尤以八月中秋為最佳。自然環境的優勢,加上長久戰爭的創傷以及澤州地區自古對天體文化的崇拜習俗等,使得中秋節在玨山一帶集中展示與體現,這里成為極具地方特色和保護價值的中秋節文化傳統示范地。其文化影響力已形成以玨山地區為核心,包括澤州縣的南村鎮、巴公鎮、高都鎮、山河鎮、柳口鎮等,向西可延至陽城縣、沁水縣,向北可延至高平市、長治市,向南可延至河南省焦作市、濟源市,向東可延伸至陵川等地。

據文獻資料和古代碑刻記載,玨山早在南北朝時期即有隆重的祭月、拜月、賞月的習俗,至唐宋更甚,而且已在古澤州地區以及其周邊的晉東南、豫西北、冀南等幅射區內具有相當的影響力,并逐漸由祭月、拜月向賞月轉變。據青蓮寺宋元符元年(1098)石柱題記記載:澤州通判段約同晉城令耿敏、縣尉黃叔敖等“步月臨流,傳觴賦詩”。金代狀元李俊民在中秋節游玨山賞月有“山吐三更月,松搖萬壑風”的詩句。金代澤州刺史許安仁在中秋節游玨山賞月留有“今宵擲筆臺邊月,來照幽人物外游”。到明清兩代,賞月之風盛行,八方文人墨客紛至沓來,在此賞月作詩已成習俗,并留下了許多精美詩篇。與此相關的作品有:《玨山詠月詩詞集》、《玨山》、《玨山志》、《歷代玨山賞月詩鈔》、《靈瑞玨山》等。

對于澤州地區的尋常百姓而言,中秋節來玨山集體祭月、拜月、登高、賞月、逛廟會、品月餅、飲茶蘇,既是祖輩人傳下來的風俗,也是攜親伴友、歡慶團圓的愉悅。

中秋祭月活動一般由當家主婦主持,主婦在拜月之前,都必須盛裝打扮一番。在許愿祝福之時,還必須口念祝詞,祝詞既要念出口,還得小聲細語,以不讓旁人知道為宜。

主婦祭祀完畢,全家人依次跪拜,由家庭主婦切開團圓月餅,切之前預先算好全家共有多少人,包括在家的和外出的,還有灶王爺一份,都要算上,不能切多也不能切少,大小要一樣。分完之后,要先給灶王爺吃,然后大家再分吃。

在澤州一帶,中秋節的活動長至三天:農歷八月十三發面、溫柿子、備果品,八月十四做月餅,八月十五白天看望外婆、送月餅,參加廟會活動,晚上祭月、拜月、賞月。

而月餅,是其中的一道重頭戲。據介紹,玨山中秋節所用的月餅有細月餅、粗月餅之分,主要是素食和甜食,而且形狀統一為圓形。細月餅就是現在常見的超市里出售的各式提糖月餅,玨山細月餅的制作工藝與其它地方的相差不大,只是表面的花紋和里邊的餡料更具地方性。

月餅做好后,外孫(女)要帶著去看望姥姥。據當地流傳的說法,這是娘家人對出嫁姑娘的一種思念,通過外孫(女)的行為來表現一種團圓。頗有趣味的是,按照當地規矩,外孫(女)送去的月餅里有一個不是圓的,而是咬了一口,當姥姥看到咬了一口的月餅就會很高興,因為這代表著自己的女兒很平安。

此外,因為中秋節是團圓的節日,所以在中秋之夜前,歸寧(回家省親,多指已婚女子回娘家)的婦女必須返回夫家團圓,因此當地有“寧留女一秋,不許過中秋”的諺語。

當地民俗學家指出,中秋習俗之所以能在澤州得到更好的保護與傳承,與澤州歷史上飽受戰亂不無關系。澤州縣地處太行山南端,是山西通向中原的重要門戶,人們經受了太多的戰亂紛爭,渴望和平,向往團圓,并把這些情感寄托給了月亮,希望生活可以和它一樣圓圓滿滿。

近年來,當地政府出臺相關文件,使中秋民俗活動得到更為有力、有效的保護與傳承。而澤州沿襲數百年的拜月、賞月等活動,特別是與之有關的大量的文獻、史料,為學術研究提供了寶貴的歷史資料。

不過,隨著時代的發展,古老的習俗也在發生著改變。比如歸寧婦女返夫家的舊規,現在因為很多是獨生子女,早已不大講究。有些雖然存在,形式卻早已改變。

山西澤州中秋“送十五”的習俗

“送十五”的是女方的家人和親人,所送東西有粗月餅(即蒸月餅或烤月餅)9個、細月餅(即精制的糕點類月餅)9個、肉2斤、小米若干,俗稱“送四合”。月餅的做法、配料非常講究,比如9個粗月餅中必須有蜂蜜紅糖餡的(祝福甜甜蜜蜜)、香油瓜籽餡的(“送子”之意)、紅小豆餡的(表示相思、思念)等。粗月餅一般沒有模具,全憑手藝做出各種花樣,其形狀均為較大的圓形面餅,內包餡料,表面裝飾面塑圖案,或蒸或烤而成,烤月餅用果木枝為柴。娘家人“送十五”到男方家后,與男方的家庭成員相互祝福、共話家常,中午一起吃“十大碗”,至傍晚時分返家。

“送十五”習俗僅在女兒婚后頭一年。第二年開始便改為女兒、女婿八月十五到女方家探望了,所帶禮品仍然是月餅、時令水果等,但是所送月餅就不能再有瓜籽餡之類的了,當晚要返回夫家,當地有“寧留女一秋,不許過中秋”的說法。

中秋節到玨山祭月、拜月、登高、賞月、品月餅,既是祖輩人傳下來的風俗,也可享受攜親伴友、歡慶團圓的愉悅。

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