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當前位置:首頁 > 民間文化 > 湖南武岡浪石古村:中國古楹聯第一村

湖南武岡浪石古村:中國古楹聯第一村

作者:王步清來源:網絡2019-07-05 09:19:05
湖南武岡浪石古村:中國古楹聯第一村

浪石古村是湘西南一顆璀璨的明珠,它有“三品”,一品是規劃合理、布局優化的古建筑群,堪稱節約集約利用土地的典范;二品是古建筑雕刻工藝精湛,作品精美;三品是石刻古楹聯。其中以石刻古楹聯猶為突出,被中國楹聯家協會譽為“中國楹聯第一村”,可稱得上是楹聯藝術中的瑰寶。

一、地理位置與歷史沿革

浪石古民居群位于湖南省西南部的武岡市雙牌鄉境內,地理坐標:東經110°36',北緯26°43',海拔313米,總面積370公頃。地處武岡、新寧、邵陽、隆回、洞口五縣市交界處,距湘西南重鎮武岡市不到60公里,距“小香港”隆回縣城桃洪鎮約30公里,有“一腳踏五縣”或“雞鳴五縣”之說。古民居群距縣道X049線不足2公里,距省道S219線5公里左右,距滬昆高速20公里左右,有寬闊、平整的瀝青公路直達古民居,交通便利。

據浪石王氏族譜記載,浪石先祖王祖清在朱元璋第十八子朱楩的身邊為副使,積累了大量財富。祖清公后隱居于龍口井頭山(現邵陽縣蔡橋鄉境內),明永樂7年(1409年),王祖清之孫王政海游歷至浪石(當時叫李家壩),看上了這里的風水,遂營建住宅,聚族而居,繁衍生息。因其后山上石板層層翻起,形如波浪,亦取“浪人至此,如石生根”之意,遂改李家壩為浪石,一直沿用至今。

明清以來,浪石王氏宗族出過不少名人能人,明清太學生40余人,舉人1人,貢生5人,庠生10余人,為官者甚多,達30余人。如:王政海四代孫王萬樹明末為官;六代孫王朝干、七代孫王永俊,任四川成都府知府,著名書法家;王自茂(清末湖南省參議員)、王蘭階(清末寶慶府警務廳廳長)、王振洲(中華民國財政部糧貿司長);王步驃(湖南大學教授,省政協委員)、王藝薰(現中國美協、書協、硬筆書法家協會委員),現在全國各地軍界政界、文化教育界任職的王氏后人也有百余人,其中有定居四川的,也有僑居海外及港臺地區的。

湖南武岡浪石古村

二、地形地貌與古民居規模

浪石古民居位于屬石灰巖丘陵山地,三面被高山圍限,風景優美,地面石林密布,石縫中松柏蒼翠,地下巖溶地貌發育,有一定數量的巖洞。有眾多泉水從洞穴溢出,匯成小溪,注入資江。浪石村擁有眾多水庫,如邵武水庫、雙丫塘水庫、大塘水庫和友誼水庫等。

浪石古民居群保留著明永樂七年(1409)至民國二年(1913)間修建的部分有康熙、乾隆、嘉慶、光緒等銘文記年的古建筑88座,占地面積24980平方米,建筑面積達18880平方米。目前仍保留完整的有55座,建筑面積6930平方米,系湘西南獨具特色的古代大型古民居建筑群。

三、古民居空間布局與建筑特點

浪石古民居落于四周環山的小盆地中央,依據風水要求而建,構思頗具匠心。古民居由四大片(大院子、上房頭、二房頭和劉家坳)組成,整體均依山、依勢而建,規劃有序,布局合理,住宅建筑居中,廁所、畜圈、雜屋等則擇四周邊隅設置,使用既方便又衛生。一條擔水溪自東向西橫貫其間,將大院子和上房頭、二房頭分開,擔水溪一路向東,流入風光秀麗的邵武水庫。而大院子、上房頭、二房頭均建在較緩的山坡上,恰似太師椅狀,隔擔水塘、擔水溪隔溪相望。西面巖塘沖至古來峰一帶,巖深地貌突出,巖洞星羅棋布,勝似仙境。民居群四周峰巒疊障,九園十沖,山間林木蔥蘢,鳥語花香,溪里流水潺潺。邵武水庫和雙丫塘水庫水質優良,波光瀲艷,山青水秀,藍天白云,青墻黛瓦,倒映水中,一派江南好風景。

大院子座落在一個小山包上,東、南、西三面為水田,北隔擔水塘與上房頭、二房頭緊鄰,地勢較平緩。主要保留著明末至清嘉慶年間的民居46座,均坐南朝北,東西長114米,南北寬126米,占地面積14364平方米。住宅均為四排三間的小平房,東、此三面砌青磚封火墻,墻上留存有“清康熙五十二年八月作磚”、“乾隆十四年己巳歲作磚瓦”、“嘉慶三十五年造”等銘文磚多塊,木制結構破損較為嚴重。

湖南武岡浪石古村

上房頭、二房頭連為一大塊,背倚后龍山,地勢稍陡。主要保留著清道光年間至民國初期的民居39座,南北寬62米,東西長160米,占地面積9920平方米。住宅建筑以四合院天井為中心,向四周不斷擴展。平面布局規范,縱深布局嚴謹,中軸對稱,均依山而踞,依勢而建。橫向12排,縱向5-6進,每排以封火山墻相夾的青石板小巷相隔,寬的達2米,窄的不足1米,每進均有兩個門角牌樓的通廊相連,晴不曝日,雨不濕鞋,冬暖夏涼。諾大的民居群僅有二房頭正中一處四合院天井采光,其佘均利用房屋之間50-80厘米的高差采光。屋與屋之間明溝暗涵相連,排水暢通。住房均為磚木結構小平房。平房四面用規格為“三六九”(10、20、30厘米)的青磚砌筑風火墻,圍成一座,一般住有二戶人家。南北兩側的風火山墻高大突出,多為雙頭或三頭的馬頭式山墻,翹角似龍、似鳳,形態逼真,惟妙惟肖。

房前為明溝,寬50-60厘米,深70-80厘米,均為石砌,明溝后為走廊,寬150厘米,南北丙側砌有磚雕、泥塑、彩繪的門角牌樓。牌樓由石礅、石檻、石枋、石額及石飛檐挑角組成,寬80-110厘米,高330-360厘米。進門兩側各有一正方形石礅每個石礅至少雕刻兩面,或仙鶴、或山羊、或魚、或花,又以一種近似麒麟的“避邪畜”居多。門檻高30厘米,多刻雙龍護宅圖,正面與石額雖不是同一個平面,卻屬同一個完整的圖案,精美異常。門枋高180-200厘米,皆由整塊方青石砌成,有陰刻或陽刻楹聯,共四十余幅。平房梁架為木質穿斗式,高6至8米不等,面闊三間、進深二間。明間為堂屋,正中設神龕,神龕后面為廚房。次間前為茶間,后為臥房。地面用桐油、石灰、黃土夯成,堅而不硬,平而不滑。大門均有門檻,高30-50厘米,上為六抹隔扇門,大多雕有花格窗欞,有浮雕,有鏤空花雕,或龍鳳呈祥,或飛禽走畜,或奇花異草,或人物典故,主要以《三國演義》、《水滸傳》的人物故事及花鳥為主,立體感強,形態逼真,工藝極為精湛。

劉家坳位于浪石村的東北端,毗鄰風光秀麗的三江口水庫,現存較為完整的建筑3座,均為清光緒年間建造的,占地面積596平方米。建筑式樣及風格與上房頭、二房頭相似。留存在封火山墻上的銘文磚多塊,主要是“光緒五年”、“光緒二十七年”的最為精美的當數石構架的角牌樓的浮雕裝飾:門額下沿陰刻太極八卦圖,正面中部浮雕雙龍戲珠圖,兩側浮雕鯉魚躍龍門,下端則為“蘇武牧羊”、“姜太公戲麒麟”圖案,幅幅惟妙惟肖,令人嘆為觀止。

湖南武岡浪石古村

四、浪石古民居的楹聯

浪石古民居具有三大特色:一是古民居建筑整體規劃與方便適用,堪為節約集約利用土地的典范;二是建筑內雕刻工藝精湛,作品精美;三是古楹聯,其中以古楹聯猶為突出,被中國楹聯家協會譽為“中國楹聯第一村”,可稱得上是楹聯藝術中的瑰寶,具有以下特點。

一是幾乎所有古楹聯都雕刻在石柱上

浪石古楹聯除一副墨跡楹聯外,其他40余副都雕刻在青石柱上,雕工精美精致,字體蒼勁有力,具有鮮明的地方特色楹聯文化。

二是建筑藝術和古楹聯文化融為一體

浪石古民居采用的是橫長方形住宅平面形式,皆為青石青磚木架結構,門前是走廊過道,均從左右側門出入。左右兩側有由石梁、石枋、石檻、石墩及石飛檐挑角組成的門角牌樓。石枋皆由青條石砌成,基本上都雕刻有古楹聯,或陰或陽,與古民居建筑風格融為一個整體。

三是古楹聯數量多,意境深,內涵豐富

浪石古民居群留存自明代至民國時期的石刻楹聯四十余副,楹聯內容健康,對仗工整,意蘊深遠。嵌入村名的楹聯“浪靜水清行龍臥,石奇風香藏虎踞”及“齊家治國平天下,盡孝竭忠處世間”、“萬里前程從此起,一生大業看將來”、“碧水環門龍起舞,丹山繞石鳳飛鳴”、“槐植庭前思手澤,竹看門外闊胸襟”、“聊以避燥濕寒暑,差不同湫隘囂塵”等楹聯,均較好體現了明清至民國時期浪石人崇尚讀書、言志、寫景、抒情、養生的楹聯文化。

四是古楹聯書法字體運用種類之多

浪石古民居楹聯書法或遒勁、或清秀、或飄逸靈動。“浪靜水清行龍臥,石奇風香藏虎踞”、“放眼相關天下事,入門且喜一家春”、“柳絮飛殘幽巷景,梅花香到小門春”、“往來若乾坤旋地,出入如日月經天”等楹聯以楷書、行書、行草、隸書或草書等字體書寫,風格各異。其中有幾幅出自清代中后期書法家何紹基之筆,更增添了浪石古楹聯的藝術價值。

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