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回族風俗習慣

作者:不詳來源:網絡2013-03-29 08:25:23
回族風俗習慣

歷史上,回族人從出生時開始,就要請阿訇起回回名字,結婚時請阿訇證婚,死亡后請阿訇主持殯葬,各方面均受伊斯蘭教的影響。特別在飲食習慣上,回民忌吃豬肉,不吃一切動物的血和自死之動物,等等。這原是《古蘭經》的規定,千百年來已經逐漸變成了回族的風俗習慣。由于歷代統治階級實行反動的民族同化政策,對回民風俗習慣橫加干涉,甚至借以挑撥民族關系,制造民族糾紛,而廣大回族人民則愈加維護這些風俗習慣,同反動的民族同化政策相對抗。在這種斗爭中,伊斯蘭教曾起到回族人民加強團結、反對民族壓迫的作用。

回族除受伊斯蘭文化的影響外,由于回漢雜居和使用漢語,還日益受到中國傳統文化的強烈影響。明代回族人的衣著已逐漸與漢人相同,使用了漢族的姓和名。明代晚期,回族人已經“士農工商通與漢人相同”,但是,在共同心理狀態、經濟生活、宗教信仰和風俗習慣等方面,回族仍表現出自己的特點,被認為“同類則相遇親厚”、“自守其國俗,終不肯變”。

隨著回族軍士的到處鎮戍屯牧,工商業者的貿易往來,官吏學者的宦游,宗教人士的傳教活動以及反壓迫斗爭后的流動遷徙,回族人逐漸形成了小集中、大分散,愈來愈分散的居住特點。在全國,回族主要與漢族雜居。在邊疆,回族與當地民族雜居;在內地,回民多分布在沿水路和陸路交通線上;在農村,回民往往自成村落;在城鎮,則多聚居關廂或若干條街巷。在室內正屋中,喜貼山水花卉畫。但因為伊斯蘭教反對任何偶像崇拜,故不掛人物像和動物圖片,凡有眼睛的圖像不能張貼。不過,隨著社會的發展,這些禁忌不那么嚴格了。為了宗教活動和生活習俗上的便利,回民習慣在住地修建“禮拜寺”,明末清初則統稱清真寺,多圍寺而居。

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