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當前位置:首頁 > 民族風情 > 華人為什么自稱為“炎黃子孫”?

華人為什么自稱為“炎黃子孫”?

作者:不詳來源:網絡2018-12-04 14:34:44
華人為什么自稱為“炎黃子孫”?

炎黃子孫是華人的自稱。“炎”指炎帝(Yan Emperor),以姜水成(今寶雞市境內)。“黃”指黃帝(Yellow Emperor),以姬水(今陜西武功漆水河)成。炎黃二帝為中華始祖。傳說他們出自同一個部落,后來成為兩個敵對的部落的首領。兩個部落展開阪泉之戰,黃帝打敗了炎帝,兩個部落漸漸融合成華夏族,華夏族在漢朝以后稱為漢人,唐朝以后又稱為唐人。炎帝和黃帝也是中國文化、技術的始祖,傳說他們以及他們的臣子、后代創造了上古幾乎所有重要的發明。

基本簡介

炎黃:炎帝神農氏和黃帝有熊氏,代表中華民族的祖先。炎帝和黃帝的后代。指中華民族的后代。亦作“炎黃子孫”。

主要含義

“炎黃”分別指中國原始社會中兩位不同部落的首領。炎帝姓姜,是炎帝族的首領。他們自西方游牧進入中原,與以蚩尤為首領的九黎族發生長期的部落間沖突。最后被迫逃避到涿鹿(今河北省)。得到黃帝族援助,攻殺蚩尤。黃帝姓姬、號軒轅氏。后來炎黃兩族在阪泉(據說,阪泉在河北懷來縣)發生了三次大沖突。黃帝族打敗了炎帝族,由西北進入了中原地區。

黃帝族與炎帝族,又與居住在東方的夷族、南方的黎族、苗族的一部分逐漸融合,形成了春秋時期的華族,漢以后稱為漢族。在當時中原地區的民族和部落中,黃帝族的力量較強,文化也較高,因而黃帝族就成為中原文化的代表。炎黃二帝就成為漢族的始祖。也被人們稱為中華民族的始祖。因而,人們往往稱中華民族是“炎黃子孫”或黃帝子孫。炎黃的子孫就成了中華民族的代名詞。

民間傳說:在有關大量的神話傳說故事中,本領最大、發明最多的人是黃帝。傳說他發明了車、船、鍋、鏡子,制造了弩。又傳說黃帝讓倉頡創造文字,伶倫制作樂律,大撓制定甲子,岐伯寫了醫書。

炎帝畫像

據說,黃帝族和炎帝族,最早居住在陜西。黃帝族最后定居在河北涿鹿附近。炎帝最后到達今山東地區。蚩尤是九黎族的首領。九黎族活動的地區,主要在今山東、河南和安徽一帶。相傳炎帝族和九黎族為了爭奪黃河流域一塊肥沃的土地,發生了一次戰爭。炎帝族戰敗,向黃帝族求援。黃、炎兩族合并。

根據以上的神話傳說,可以看到,黃帝族、炎帝族和九黎族三個部落,逐步以黃帝族為主,相互融合,黃帝就成了中國多民族國家的共同祖先。后來,各族都認為是黃帝的后代,稱為“炎黃子孫”。

黃帝陵:黃帝陵就在中國陜西省黃陵縣的一座長滿了蒼松翠柏的山上,現在每年清明時節,都有許多海、內外炎黃子孫到那里去祭祖。

發展歷程:炎黃子孫,也稱黃炎子孫,黃帝子孫,是華夏民族的自稱。語出《國語·周語下》:“皇天嘉之,祚以天下,賜姓曰‘姒’、氏曰‘有夏’,謂其能以嘉祉殷富生物也。祚四岳國,命以侯伯,賜姓曰‘姜’、氏曰‘有呂’,謂其能為禹股肱心膂,以養物豐民人也。……有夏雖衰,杞、鄫猶在;申、呂雖衰,齊、許猶在。唯有嘉功,以命姓受祀,迄于天下,及其失之也,必有慆淫之心間之。故亡其氏姓,踣斃不振;絕后無主,湮替隸圉。夫亡者豈繄無寵?皆黃、炎之后也。”也就是說,鯀、禹與夏人之后,以及共工、四岳與各姜姓國,「皆黃、炎之后也」。先秦炎黃子孫包括夏、商、姬、姜四族,也就是姒姓、子姓、嬴姓、姬姓、姜姓氏族中繼承了華夏文明的國家。比如周王室和魯、晉、鄭、衛、韓、魏、燕、虞、虢等姬姓國;齊、申、呂、許等姜姓國。徐、黃、郯、江、趙、秦等嬴姓國、子姓宋國。炎黃合祀,始自秦靈公。《史記·封禪書》載:“秦靈公作吳陽上畤,祭黃帝;作下畤,祭炎帝。” 傳說中,炎帝與黃帝都被視為華夏民族的始祖。《國語·晉語》載:“昔少典娶于有蟜氏,生黃帝、炎帝。黃帝以姬水(今陜西關中漆水河)成,炎帝以姜水(今陜西關中清姜河)成。成而異德,故黃帝為姬,炎帝為姜。二帝用師以相濟也,異德之故也。”這是我們目前所能看到的最早記載炎帝、黃帝誕生地的史料。因此,他們是起源于陜西省中部渭河流域的兩個血緣關系相近的部落首領。后來,兩個部落展開阪泉之戰,黃帝打敗了炎帝,兩個部落漸漸融合成華夏族,華夏族在漢朝以后稱為漢人,唐朝以后又稱為唐人。炎帝和黃帝也是中國文化、技術的始祖,傳說他們以及他們的臣子、后代創造了上古幾乎所有重要的發明。

黃帝畫像

后來的傳說的幾位古帝王一直到夏商周帝王,都被認為是黃帝的直系子孫,連蠻、夷也被納入這個系統。后世的帝王也聲稱他們是黃帝的后裔。幾乎所有的姓氏都將自己的遠祖追溯到炎帝、黃帝或他們的臣子。而接受了華夏文化的少數民族(如匈奴、鮮卑等等)也聲稱自己是黃帝子孫、炎黃子孫。遼朝大臣耶律儼《皇朝實錄》稱契丹為黃帝之后。《遼史·太祖紀贊》和《世表序》主張契丹為炎帝之后。近年在云南發現的契丹遺裔,保存有一部修于明代的《施甸長官司族譜》,卷首附一首七言詩,詩曰:“遼之先祖始炎帝……”。這些契丹人也自認為契丹是炎帝苗裔。

在清朝末年,這個觀念隨著中國民族主義的建構更加廣泛地流傳。清末反抗滿族統治的早期革命黨人,即用“炎黃子孫、黃帝子孫”做口號取得漢人的支持,激進的革命派認為“炎黃之裔,厥惟漢族”。而溫和的改良派則認為“中國皆黃帝子孫”。面對西方列強的侵略和蠶食,包括少數民族人士在內的有識之士號召打破族群界限,以“炎黃子孫”為旗幟凝聚中華。在面對外國強敵侵略而處于亡國亡種的危機下,“炎黃子孫、黃帝子孫”的概念,成為以祖先崇拜為基本文化的中國人構建民族凝聚力的符號。抗日戰爭時期,“炎黃子孫”的稱謂在抗敵烽火中定型為中華民族的指代符號,成為號召與激勵海內外華人共同抗戰的一面旗幟。在中華民國時期,“中華民族之全體,均皆黃帝之子孫”,全體中國人皆為炎黃子孫已成為共識。

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