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緬甸敬老節——結夏點燈節

作者:不詳來源:光明日報2019-02-20 08:41:41
緬甸敬老節——結夏點燈節

穆斯林的開齋節剛結束,在篤信小乘佛教的緬甸,人們迎來了慶祝齋戒結束的大節——結夏點燈節。

不同的宗教和文化當真有異曲同工之處。緬甸的結夏點燈節亦稱結夏節或月圓日點燈節,也稱其為“結夏安居日”,是在每年緬歷七月的月圓日(公歷10月上旬前后)。由于這個傳統佳節與佛祖釋迦牟尼密切相關,于是在虔誠的緬甸佛教徒心中,其隆重程度較之于世人耳熟能詳的新年潑水節有過之而無不及。

據《三藏經》載,自三個月前的月圓日起,佛祖為天神講經授課三個月后,在月圓之夜沿著梵天王為他變幻的紅寶石走廊從天而降,重返人間。眾佛在左銀右金另外兩條天廊上簇擁相伴,蔚為壯觀。人們虔誠地秉燭燃燈,恭迎佛祖下凡,故稱“點燈節”。歷史記載,緬甸的這一習俗始于蒲甘王朝(公元1044-1287年)時期。當時的國王在皇城內搭建一座高高的禮棚,張燈結彩。皇城通往佛塔的沿途亦綴滿長龍般的燈盞,以示對至高無上的佛祖禮拜和歡迎。而印度有關信徒燃燈迎佛的最早記載竟遠于2570多年前。所以“點燈節”這天應是全世界佛教徒心中的圣日。

緬甸敬老節——結夏點燈節

佛祖在天堂講經期間,所有僧侶要“安居坐臘”,信徒也要避免遷居嫁娶。月圓日釋迦牟尼佛下凡日,便是僧侶們解除長達三個月寺內安居的日子,人們的生活也可解除禁忌恢復如常。因此“點燈節”又稱“解夏節”。加上月圓日前、后兩天,一連三天所有的佛寺、佛塔同民居及街道一樣,也裝點上華麗彩飾和燈盞。

緬甸敬老節——結夏點燈節

最有特色的要算是緬甸北部的撣邦,尤其在帕歐一帶的村莊,村民們還會發射土制的“火箭”,并升起各式各樣的熱氣球和“孔明燈”,慶賀佛祖歸來。在著名的仰光大金塔周遭,里三層外三層聚滿了虔誠禮佛的老少民眾。

緬甸人篤信,因佛祖弘法解開了天神們對佛經中最深奧部分的理解領悟,大公德使其母親得以在天堂重生,并與其邂逅相見。所以在緬甸,“結夏點燈節”這天又是“敬老節”,成為向尊長表示感謝的日子。不少人利用這個難得的機會,對平素一直難以接近的主管、上司和曾幫助過自己的人表示謝意。對方一般是不會拒絕的。不僅如此,人們互為對方向佛祖祈福。

緬甸敬老節——結夏點燈節

節日期間,多數政府學校會放假10天。放假前的最后一天,孩子們自發組織敬師派對,以求老師原諒自己的頑皮,并向老師抒致謝忱和感恩之情。人們對僧眾的慷慨布施就更加普遍。

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