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當前位置:首頁 > 異域風俗 > 國外節日 > 緬甸浴佛節

緬甸浴佛節

作者:不詳來源:網絡2019-02-16 15:27:05
緬甸浴佛節

浴佛節也叫浴榕節,在緬歷的2月月圓時舉行,即公歷的4月下旬或5月上旬。緬甸的佛教徒將菩提樹(榕樹)視為佛的化身,在最炎熱干旱季節給榕樹淋水,有希望佛教弘揚光大之意。

浴榕樹節是緬甸文化中最重要的緬甸宗教節日之一。

緬歷二月月盈日是釋迦牟尼前世接受燃燈佛預言啟示、悉達多出生、受四諦成佛、涅磐和菩提樹出土的日子。每當緬歷二月月盈日到來之時,人們都要去佛塔禮拜,給菩提樹澆水、浴佛。

菩提樹對于佛教徒來講是十分神圣的,它是佛的象征。當年,釋迦牟尼在尼連禪河邊苦行林中的一棵菩提樹下潛心冥想、靜思人生之道,最后得道、覺悟成佛。因此,每一座佛塔都種有菩提樹。人們對菩提樹倍加愛護,從不砍伐。緬甸的菩提樹是有僧侶們從錫蘭帶入的。史書中有那羅波帝悉都時期僧侶波勞信赴錫蘭求菩提樹種獻于王的記載。

緬甸浴佛節

緬甸的浴榕習俗始自蒲甘朝。邦牙朝時(14世紀初)浴榕開始成為一個正式的節會。人們浴榕的目的有兩個:1、使樹長青;2、求雨祈豐年。

浴榕節當日,人們一大早就聚集于榕樹下。習慣上人們在早上六點要按順時針方向繞樹一圈。六點半司儀浴榕活動開始。先恭請眾神下凡,然后僧侶要持戒、頌偈陀和講法,再獻浴榕水,長者宣布浴榕。這時由32位打扮成梵天、帝釋、龍、妙翅鳥模樣的演員分四組在榕樹周圍站好,再由八位身著民族服裝的長者走到樹下,念頌偈、給榕樹澆水,之后六十四位少女念祈禱八字偈,分福與眾,送梵天回府。眾人在大念三聲善哉后敲銅罄一下,宣布儀式結束。眾人根據自己的意愿澆水浴榕。由此節會派生的還有獻涼水罐的習俗。緬甸人認為施水有十種好處:長壽、美麗、富有、聰穎、力壯如牛、有名氣、侍從多、潔凈、快步如飛和不缺水。

緬甸浴佛節

浴佛節這一天,人們都要穿新衣或盛裝,帶著灌滿清水的水罐成群結隊到附近的榕樹或有榕樹的佛塔寺院和街道去澆灌榕樹,先繞樹行頂禮,祈求風調雨順、人壽年豐,后把帶來的水澆灌到榕樹上。

浴佛節似乎是從古印度的一種宗教要求傳衍而來的,據有關記載,當時流行的婆羅門教即行一種浴像的儀式,人們認為這樣做可以使人精神清潔,浴佛節的起源可能與此有關。

關于中國的浴佛節,則有這不同的來源。相傳農歷四月八日為釋迦牟尼的生日,此日僧尼皆香花燈燭,置銅佛于水中,進行浴佛,一般民眾則爭舍財錢、放生、求子,祈求佛祖保佑,出現各種廟會。在農歷四月八日,各地佛寺舉行佛誕進香。

緬甸浴佛節

在中國的浴佛節中還有一種結緣活動。它是以施舍的形式,祈求結來世之緣。民間舍豆結緣,寺院、宮廷也不例外。宮中要煮青豆,分賜宮女內監及內廷大臣,稱作“吃緣豆”。

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