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當前位置:首頁 > 異域風俗 > 國外風俗 > 為了讓國民養成垃圾分類的習慣,這些國家也真夠拼的

為了讓國民養成垃圾分類的習慣,這些國家也真夠拼的

作者:不詳來源:網絡2019-04-24 09:14:38
為了讓國民養成垃圾分類的習慣,這些國家也真夠拼的

垃圾分類功在當代,利在千秋,為了讓公民養成垃圾分類的意識,有些國家不惜花了一個多世紀的時間。我們就來看看發達國家如何進行垃圾分類。

英國

每個英國家庭都有三個垃圾箱:一個黑色,裝普通生活垃圾;一個綠色,裝花園及廚房的垃圾;一個黑色小箱子,裝玻璃瓶、易拉罐等可回收物。社區會安排三輛不同的垃圾車,每周一次將其運走。普通生活垃圾主要是填埋,花園及廚房的垃圾用作堆肥;垃圾回收中心則回收42種垃圾,如眼鏡、家具等。

美國

美國紐約的垃圾分類制度開始于1986年。為便于民眾分類,市政府規定,在學校、機關等地,垃圾桶分藍色和綠色。凡紙類垃圾都應放在藍色桶中;瓶子、罐頭等放在綠色桶里。秋季的落葉和冬季的圣誕樹則會在特定季節由專人回收——當落葉滿地時,市政府就會明確要求居民把落葉裝入紙垃圾袋中,按指定時間放在房屋前,由垃圾車收走。

澳大利亞

澳大利亞居民家的院子里,都會有三個深綠色大塑料桶,蓋子的顏色分別為紅、黃、綠。綠蓋子的桶里,放清理花園時剪下來的草、樹葉、花等;黃蓋子的桶里,放可回收資源,包括塑料瓶、玻璃瓶等;紅蓋子的桶放其他垃圾。

瑞典

瑞典在培養國民垃圾分類意識上,足足花了一代人的時間。對于那些偷懶不愿意去分類的人,瑞典政府則通過重新設計垃圾容器來提高亂扔垃圾的難度。例如,把扔瓶罐的容器口設計成小孔狀,把扔硬紙盒和紙板箱的容器口設計成信封狀。這樣一來,大大減少了亂扔垃圾的現象。

德國

德國是第一個為“垃圾經濟”立法的國家。90%的德國人會自覺遵守垃圾分類規則,近80%的德國人認為,為環保作貢獻對個人來說都很重要。如今,德國垃圾再利用行業每年創造410億歐元產值,生產部門的垃圾被重新利用的比例平均為50%。垃圾回收已經成為德國人的環保“標簽”之一。

在德國,各種垃圾都被嚴格分類,尤其是對生活垃圾的嚴格分類,已經成為展現德國人嚴謹細致的代表性案例。居民區附近都設有垃圾投放區,并且放置著棕、藍、黑、黃四種顏色的垃圾桶。各種顏色代表不同的垃圾——棕色投放有機垃圾,藍色投放廢紙,黑色投放剩余垃圾,黃色則專門投放標有綠色圓點回收標志的商品包裝。

比利時

比利時政府大力推廣節能知識,讓環保理念從家庭垃圾分裝開始深入人心。孩子從小就要學會辨認垃圾,學習不同垃圾的處理方法。有調查顯示,大約有95%的比利時家庭會按照規定自覺進行垃圾分類,家庭垃圾回收率居世界前列。

新加坡

新加坡綜合固體垃圾管理系統主要從兩方面著力——減少垃圾的產生和廢物回收。

為了把垃圾變成能源,同時節約填埋空間,上世紀70年代后期,新加坡國家環境局開始使用焚化廠,垃圾的體積因此減少了90%。焚化后所產生的灰燼及不可燃燒垃圾,最后被運至實馬高垃圾埋置場填埋。

實馬高垃圾埋置場是由位于新加坡本島以南約8公里處的實馬高島和鄰近的錫京島相互連接、圍海而成,這是世界第一個從海域發展出來的垃圾埋置場。為了不污染環境,島的四周都鋪設不透水的保護膜,確保填埋垃圾中的有毒物質不會流入海中。

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